Psychophysiology of success and avoidance of failure in children

There are two different strategies for adaptive behavior: achieving success and avoiding failure. It turned out that these two strategies are already present in childhood and are associated with functional hemispheric asymmetry .

To assess the characteristics of cerebral energy processes associated with the choice of these strategies, in our studies, we used the assessment of inter-hemispheric differences of SCP.

Sharmina examined 43 right-handed boys and 45 right-handed girls 6 years old before entering school. Psychological testing was carried out using the Heckhausen maze. The child tentatively planned for himself the purpose of the subsequent action: the passage time of the labyrinth, and at the end of each sample, he received information about the real time of his passage. Comparison swim a nirovannogo and actual results for each sample allows the child to go through a feeling of success, if the prediction does not exceed the time spent, or – the failure, if the child does not fit into their scheduled time. Using this technique, the level of claims was assessed, namely, the average number of forecasts in 10 samples was calculated. In this case, a longer average forecast time corresponded to a lower level. claims. The inadequate actions of the test subject were also evaluated, when planning was carried out without taking into account the time of the actual passage of the maze, and the stability of the choice. Inadequate shifts in the level of claims (UE) – an indicator of the lack of formation of the level of claims as a personal characteristic. This indicator is associated with an emotional response to the result just obtained without developing more general individual requirements for fulfilling the task. Normally, with an adequately formed level of claims, failure in the previous trial leads to a decrease in the level of claims in the subsequent trial. Conversely, success in the previous trial contributes to the growth of the level of claims in the subsequent trial. Violations of this goal setting rule, i.e. increasing the level of claims after failure and reducing the level of claims after success,regarded as inadequate shifts in the level of claims. The total number of such shifts in the last ten samples was calculated and divided by the total number of samples.

In boys and girls, the difference between (UE) and the real level of achievement (UD) of the result is highly reliable and positive. Calculations show that most children underestimate their abilities to achieve a result by about one and a half times. The average difference (UP-UD) was 43.1 + 1.2 s for boys and 43.9 + 1.2 s for girls.

The study showed that in boys, the difference between the UPP between the right and left temporal areas was -0.7 + 0.5 mV, in girls – -1.2 + 0.8 mV. The arithmetic mean of these differences was not significantly different from zero, while in older children there is a significant predominance of SCP in the left hemisphere. Statistical verification by the  – square method showed that the distribution of this quantity is normal.

Consider the relationship of the level of claims with hemispheric asymmetry in boys. All the examined boys were divided into three groups depending on the values ​​of the hemispheric difference PPM. The central group (the second group) consisted of boys who had values ​​of the hemispheric difference of the SCP in the interval: arithmetic average + standard deviation. The first and third groups were boys with correspondingly smaller and larger values ​​of the hemispheric difference of SCP. The division into groups was carried out when measuring the SCP before performing the testing. The psychological characteristics in all three groups were compared.

By the method of univariate analysis, it was found that in children separated in this way, there was a difference in the average level of claims ( F = 4.5; p <0.02); the number of inadequate answers (F = 3.7; p <0.03) and stability of choice ( F = 6.9; p <0.003). Boys with a predominance of intensity of energy metabolism in the left hemisphere had the longest temporal duration of forecasts with the least number of inadequate answers. Opposite characteristics were possessed by children with a predominance of SCP in the right hemisphere, i.e. they had a high level of aspirations (short temporal prognosis) and the largest number of inadequate answers. However, in the first and third groups compared with the second was a high stability of the reaction. In addition, a small but significant negative correlation between the hemispheric difference of the SCP and the level of claims ( r = –0.38; p <0.01) was found, confirming that the shortest in time for the passage of the labyrinth corresponds to high SCP values ​​in the right hemisphere .

sihologicheskie characteristics boys eight

On the ordinate axis – psychological characteristics: the average time of the forecast is seconds, the stability of the choice and the level of inadequate reactions – in m. units

In girls, the division into groups was carried out as in boys: the predominance of the intensity of energy exchange in the right or in the left hemisphere or the absence of lateral prevalence. Functional hemispheric asymmetry of the distribution of SCP was a factor ( F = 5.5; p <0.0085) associated with the total number of inadequate shifts in UE in girls. The greatest number of inadequate shifts was observed with the predominance of SCP in the left hemisphere, and the smallest in – with the right .

local_offerevent_note June 17, 2019

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