Syndrome of prolonged compression (SDS) – a kind of severe trauma caused by prolonged compression (compression) of soft tissues. It is characterized by complex pathogenesis, treatment complexity and a high mortality rate. SDS (crash syndrome, traumatic toxicosis) develops most often in people affected by mass disasters. The clinical manifestations of this syndrome were first described by N.I. Pirogov in the work “The Beginning of General Military Field Surgery” on the basis of observations made by him during the defense of Sevastopol in the Crimean War of 1854-1855. Many scientific works are devoted to the study of SDS, the authors of which are still debating not only about the legitimacy of the name of this syndrome, but also about its classification, diagnosis and treatment methods.
The severity of the course and clinical manifestations of SDS depends on many reasons, primarily on the location of the damage, its extent and duration of tissue compression. Moreover, the longer the area of the body undergoes compression, the more severe the course of the crash syndrome. Although sometimes short-term compression can lead to the development of severe pathological changes in the body. Most often, extremities suffer from prolonged compression, especially the lower ones (in 81% of cases of SDS).
Mortality in diabetes mellitus due to the development of acute renal failure reaches 85-90%, which is due to the severity of the clinical course of this syndrome, the lack of sufficiently effective treatment methods and the difficulty of organizing timely medical care for victims.
The classification below allows us to formulate a diagnosis of SDS, taking into account the diversity of its manifestations.