The air purity of the premises is assessed on the basis of determining the total number of microorganisms contained in 1 m3 of air (TMP) and the presence of sanitary-indicative microorganisms: pathogenic, coagulase-positive, hemolytic staphylococci, as well as streptococci, which are ordinary inhabitants of the human respiratory tract.
Particularly important is the control of microbial air pollution in the surgical, burn and children’s wards of hospitals, as well as in maternity hospitals, where the occurrence of postoperative, postpartum and other hospital infections is most dangerous. With systematic monitoring, the detection of a small number of pathogenic sanitary-significant microorganisms in departments where there is no hospital infection is natural and does not go beyond the permissible limits. An indicator of sanitary dysfunction is the large, especially increasing, seeding of air by these microorganisms.
When assessing the results of the study of microbial airborne contamination, it is necessary to establish what place among the detected pathogenic staphylococci is occupied by antibiotic-resistant species and whether any one or few phagotypes prevail among the crops being cultivated. An increase in the number of pathogenic staphylococci with a simultaneous narrowing of the circle of their types and an increase in the specific gravity of antibiotic-resistant forms should be considered as a harbinger of the possible occurrence of hospital infections.
Planned studies of air for general bacterial contamination and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the operating, aseptic, resuscitation chambers of surgical departments, maternity wards and children’s wards of obstetric hospitals are carried out once a month; in aseptic departments – for the presence of gram-negative microorganisms according to indications. However, according to epidemiological indications, the spectrum of microorganisms detected in the air can be expanded.
Hygienic assessment of the microbial air pollution in the premises of a health care facility is carried out by comparing the actual number of colonies of microorganisms (CFU – colony forming units) in 1 m3 of air with an acceptable level regulated by the current regulatory document SanPiN 22.214.171.1245-03