Let’s talk about how high cholesterol is treated
Cholesterol is a lipid compound synthesized in the liver and circulating in the blood, which is necessary for the human body to build all cell membranes, to synthesize steroid hormones and bile. This vital substance in large quantities becomes an enemy for blood vessels and the cause of high mortality from heart attack and stroke.
Reasons for increasing the level
Cholesterol is an endogenous substance produced by the body itself. Only 15-20% of it enters the bloodstream with food, therefore, the reasons for the increase in cholesterol lie not only in the irrational human diet. This condition is due to:
- genetic predisposition;
- hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism);
- abuse of beta-blockers, diuretics, immunosuppressants;
- smoking, addiction to alcohol;
- unhealthy diet.
Dangers of high cholesterol
blood cholesterol content
- in protein-lipid complexes: HDL, LDL, VLDL (esterified cholesterol) – 60-70%;
- in free form – 30-40% of the total.
By summing 2 concentrations, you get its total level.
An indicator exceeding the age norm is considered elevated. The risk group for diseases of the cardiovascular system includes men over 55 and women over 65 years of age with a total cholesterol level in the blood> 4.9 mmol / L.
Why is the increased level dangerous?
“Excess” cholesterol is able to be deposited on the inner wall of the arterial trunks and blood vessels of the heart, leading to the appearance of cholesterol plaque.
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The plaque can almost completely block the lumen of the coronary artery and lead to angina pectoris and chronic heart failure. If the plaque is oversaturated with cholesterol, collapses due to inflammation or hyperextension of blood vessels and enters the bloodstream, an acute myocardial infarction will occur.
“Cholesterol gruel” of the destroyed plaque clogs the arteries of the brain and causes ischemic stroke.
Medicines that lower blood cholesterol are called statins. Contraindications to their use:
- stage of exacerbation of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis;
- pregnancy, breastfeeding;
- age under 18;
- exacerbation of kidney disease;
- individual intolerance;
- simultaneous intake of alcohol.
Recommendations for the diet of people with high levels of total cholesterol in the blood correspond to table No. 10, 10C according to Pevzner. Correction of diet is a reliable means of eliminating the alimentary cause of increased cholesterol levels in the blood.
- 1 – The daily energy value should not exceed 2600 Kcal.
- 2 – The recommended protein content is 90 g (of which 55-60% is allocated to animal proteins).
- 3 – Daily fat intake – no more than 80 g (of which no more than 60% is allocated to animal proteins).
- 4 – Carbohydrates – no more than 350 g.
- 5 – The number of meals per day is 5-6.
- 6 – Not more than 5 mg of salt per day.
- 7 – The amount of harmful trans fats – no more than 1% of the total diet.
- 8 – The daily ration should contain 30-45 grams of vegetable fiber, 200 g of fresh vegetables, 200 g of fresh fruit.
- 9 – Consumption of fish every 2-3 days.
- 10 – No more than 20 g of alcohol per day for men and no more than 10 g for women.
1 breakfast: Boiled chicken breast, baked potatoes, herbs, fresh salad of tomatoes, cucumbers, dried fruit compote or weak tea with lemon.
2 breakfast: oatmeal jelly, banana, apple, cod liver sandwich.
Lunch: cottage cheese casserole or low-fat vegetable soup, a slice of steamed beef, apple, banana or orange, rosehip decoction.
Dinner: stewed vegetable stew, sea buckthorn juice, cucumber, tomato or pear.
- Vegetable, fruit soups;
- coarse bread, bran;
- boiled or steamed rabbit, beef, chicken meat;
- low-fat seafood boiled or baked with a minimum amount of salt and spices;
- fruit casseroles, cottage cheese;
- porridge and a side dish of semolina, buckwheat, oatmeal;
- fresh, stewed, boiled, baked vegetables;
- fresh fruits;
- egg white;
- a small amount of nuts, honey;
- unsalted cheeses;
- dairy products with low fat content;
- vegetable salads seasoned with unrefined oil;
- berry, fruit fruit drinks, jelly, compotes, herbal decoctions.
Foods not recommended by the diet
- Fried in oil, smoked dishes;
- fatty meat, poultry and fish, lard;
- butter confectionery, pasta, white bread, rice;
- sweet carbonated drinks, chocolate;
- spices, sauces;
- egg yolks;
- strong coffee, tea, cocoa;
- fatty dairy products, including cheeses;
- products with a high content of preservatives, flavors, artificial additives, flavor enhancers.
Must-have cholesterol-lowering foods
- nuts, especially almonds;
- avocado, oats;
- green tea;
- barley, beans, lentils, beans;
Illegal Cholesterol-Rich Foods
- Beef Brains;
- egg yolk;
- caviar of sea and river fish;
- beef tongue;
- sea shrimps, crayfish;
- hard cheese;
- chicken skin.
Treatment with folk remedies
And now let’s talk about how to treat high cholesterol with folk remedies. Remember that treatment with folk remedies should not crowd out medication and interfere with the use of statins.
- 1 – Add 20 drops of propolis tincture to a glass of water. Take propolis water three times daily before meals.
- 2 – Crush the ginger root in a garlic press, add 3-5 drops of juice to the tea. You can drink ginger root juice in the morning and evening.
- 3 – Brew ginger tea using 2 teaspoons of ginger root shavings and add a few lemon slices to the teapot.
- 4 – In a similar way, tea is made from linden flowers (2 tablespoons of dried flowers per liter of water). This tea is good in the morning, at lunchtime and in the evening. You can dissolve 1-2 g of bee bee over a tea party.
- 5 – Make your own oil, for which you need 10 cloves of garlic for 2 cups of olive oil. Squeeze the juice out of the garlic and mix it with oil, let it brew. Use for salad dressing.
- 6 – Prepare the dill infusion. Take 1/2 cup fresh dill and a teaspoon of ground valerian root. Pour boiling water over and cook for 20 minutes. Let it brew for several days, strain. Drink the infusion before each meal with the addition of a spoonful of honey.
- 7 – 2 tablespoons of beesworm pour into a saucepan, pour a glass of boiling water and simmer for 2 hours over low heat. Let it brew and cool. Strain the infusion before use. Drink 3 times daily before meals.
Folk remedies are more suitable for preventing the formation of cholesterol plaques.
Eliminate hypodynamia as the cause of vascular and myocardial weakness.
Exercise should not make you feel worse. The most effective remedy is moderate physical activity. They are designed to strengthen the vascular wall and heart muscle and include:
- Nordic walking or hiking in the fresh air;
- easy running at a moderate pace;
- morning exercises (squats, kicks, jumping in place);
- flexibility and stretching exercises;
- strength exercises with dumbbells;
- aerobics or swimming.
About high cholesterol and actions in this case
Who to contact for help
You can contact your GP to prescribe you a biochemical blood test. The therapist will select medications, refer, if necessary, to a cardiologist, who will select medications for you taking into account the condition of your cardiovascular system, the cause of the disease, cholesterol level, age, body weight and concomitant diseases.
And finally, how else can you lower cholesterol without medication?
The rate of triglycerides in the blood
All biochemical processes in human blood are aimed at maintaining the constancy of the internal environment. The body is a kind of machine, all parts of which work harmoniously and together. For example, triglycerides are important participants in fat metabolism and provide cells and tissues with an adequate supply of energy. Therefore, the normal level of triglycerides in the blood is an important component of health and longevity.
What are triglycerides for?
Triglycerides are organic compounds of a lipid (fatty) nature. In terms of their chemical composition, they are esters of fatty alcohol of glycerin. Some of these substances enter the body with food. Main sources:
- fat meat;
- offal (liver, kidneys);
- vegetable oils (sunflower, olive, etc.).
The other part is capable of being synthesized in the cells of the liver, small intestine, and adipose tissue.
Triglycerides have many functions in the human body. The main ones include:
- creation of a fat depot – triglyceride molecules are very high in calories and, when broken down, a lot of energy and ATP are released for the full functioning of all cells of the body;
- structural function – lipids are the main building block for all cell membranes.
Unfortunately, an increase in triglycerides negatively affects the state of the body. An increase in the level of lipoproteins in the blood, like cholesterol, can cause their deposition on the walls of blood vessels, which leads to insufficient blood supply to the organ – the blood literally cannot “break through” through the arteries covered with fatty deposits from the inside. Therefore, it is recommended to measure triglycerides in the blood for all people over 40-45 years of age to control and, if necessary, correct their level.
Analysis for triglycerides
The analysis for triglycerides is taken in the morning on an empty stomach (it is allowed to drink non-carbonated table water). Moreover, it is not recommended to eat fatty fried foods the night before; dine preferably before 19.00. Excessive intake of fat from food can affect the biochemical analysis, and it will turn out to be significantly higher than normal. To exclude an unreliable result, it is not recommended to smoke 30 minutes before the analysis.
Blood for triglycerides is taken from a vein. The analysis is usually deciphered on the same day so that its results are as reliable as possible. The triglyceride level should answer the question of how high the risk of developing atherosclerosis in a particular patient.
Analysis of triglycerides and lipid profile (cholesterol, low and high density lipoproteins) is included in the screening examination: this means that patients of a certain age are recommended to undergo this procedure every 2 years. The norm in the biochemical blood test indicates a low risk of developing atherosclerosis and its complications. Exceeding the threshold values can mean either a predisposition to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, or the presence of a disease. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe additional examination methods and complex treatment.
Nature has endowed women with the ability to carry a child. This serious and responsible process requires a lot of energy, so the fatty layer on the abdomen and hips is a physiological phenomenon. This is an absolute norm and a kind of energy reservoir in case of pregnancy and childbirth.
Therefore, the rate of triglycerides in the blood in women is an important indicator of healthy lipid metabolism. It is also important to monitor the analysis for TG and cholesterol after menopause, when the protective effect of sex hormones on blood vessels ends, and women have an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and stroke.
the nome increases with age. This is due not only to hormonal changes in a woman’s body, but also to a slowdown in metabolism: excess triglycerides from food are no longer processed so intensively, and the TG level gradually increases. These factors also affect a woman’s weight gain after menopause.
Another physiological reason for an increase in blood triglyceride levels is pregnancy and breastfeeding. During this period, energy consumption increases markedly in order to ensure the normal growth and development of the child, therefore, adipose tissue is actively broken down, and the level of TG increases. The norm in a pregnant woman may exceed the age concentration by 1.5-2 times and returns to the initial level only 5-6 weeks after childbirth.
An increase in the level above normal has an adverse effect on the state of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. They, in the first place, suffer from insufficient blood supply through the arteries clogged with atherosclerotic plaques. The other side of the issue is the decrease in the TG indicator below the threshold level. This condition often occurs in women who are on rigid, exhausting diets and living in stressful environments. Low triglyceride levels can cause reproductive problems up to the cessation of menstruation and infertility, as well as a serious energy deficiency throughout the body. This condition is manifested by fatigue, drowsiness, the appearance of many wrinkles, dull skin, brittle nails and hair.
An active fat metabolism also takes place in a man’s body, because intensively developing muscle tissue requires a lot of energy. When deciphering the biochemical analysis of triglycerides, the same tendency is traced as in women: with age, the metabolism slows down, and lipid norms grow, reaching a maximum at 45-50 years. Later, the norms of triglycerides in men decrease.
Excessive fat metabolism in men is an unfavorable sign. It is most commonly associated with metabolic syndrome. According to statistics, this pathology affects up to 25% of the population of developed countries over 45 years old. Most of them are men.
Metabolic syndrome is a symptom complex, including:
- persistent increase in blood pressure;
- hyperglycemia – an increase in glucose concentration;
- insulin resistance;
- increased concentrations of “harmful” cholesterol and triglycerides;
- a decrease in the concentration of “useful” high density lipoproteins.
This syndrome is one of the predisposing factors for the development of heart attack, stroke, dyscirculatory encephalopathy and diabetes mellitus, which, without proper attention, lead to a decrease in the quality of life and death. Therefore, it is recommended to include biochemistry for sugar, regular changes in blood pressure, and general lipid profile in the complex examination of men over 40 suffering from lipid metabolism disorders.
In case of significant deviations from the norm, an intensive course of treatment of metabolic syndrome is shown with the appointment of a diet, a healthy lifestyle and correction of the state with medication. Level control should be carried out once every three months until it reaches the norm.
Decreases in triglycerides below normal levels are less common in men than in women and are usually associated with nutritional factors. You can bring the lipid profile back to normal by consuming large amounts of meat, liver, nuts and vegetable oils.
Blood cholesterol and triglyceride measurements are rare in children. Children’s age norms are much lower than that of adults
An increase in blood triglyceride levels in childhood is usually associated with:
- regular excess intake of it into the body (as a rule, this means overeating and the lack of a food culture in the family);
- metabolic disorders in type I diabetes mellitus, thyroid pathology, etc.
It is believed that every tenth child from a developed country by the age of 15 is at risk of having cholesterol and triglyceride levels that are significantly higher than the norm, and at the age of 12-13 the first atherosclerotic plaques may form.
What is the reason for the deviation of the level from the norm
If the analysis for biochemistry showed a deviation of triglycerides from the norm, only the attending physician can be responsible for a complete and comprehensive examination of the patient. An increase or decrease in blood lipids may indicate a serious pathology that requires long-term treatment.
An increase in triglyceride levels occurs when:
- hereditary genetic predisposition;
- excessive consumption of fat in food;
- alcohol abuse;
- metabolic syndrome;
- chronic pyelonephritis – inflammation of the kidneys, leading to renal failure;
- hypothyroidism, chronic thyroid pathologies;
- diabetes mellitus in the stage of decompensation;
- pancreatitis – chronic inflammation of the pancreas;
- ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction;
The main reason for the decrease in triglycerides in the blood is their insufficient intake with food during a strict diet, starvation, diseases that interfere with the absorption and assimilation of food. Also the factors of their decrease are:
- hereditary insufficiency of lipids in the blood;
- living in a stressful environment;
- hyperthyroidism – hyperfunction of the thyroid gland;
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD);
- violation of cerebral circulation and death of nervous tissue.
After assessing all risk factors, the doctor can prescribe a comprehensive treatment. Reduce high triglyceride levels by following a low-fat diet, quitting smoking and alcohol, walking, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. In addition, specific drug therapy can be prescribed (drugs from the group of statins – Rosuvostatin, Atorvostatin, fibrates – Fenofibrate, Clofibrate, bile acid sequestrants). Treatment with these drugs is usually long-term, the first positive results can be seen after three months of regular use. When normal values of triglycerides in the blood are reached, the doctor cancels drug therapy. If a patient is diagnosed with comorbidities such as arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease, appropriate treatment for these conditions is prescribed .
A decrease in triglycerides is much less common. This can cause a general weakening of the body, a decrease in immunity, a depressed mood up to depression. To restore it, it is recommended to eat a nutritious diet rich in vegetable and animal fats, if necessary, psychotherapy.
Thus, the maintenance of triglycerides in the blood within the normal range is the prevention of such formidable conditions as cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, circulatory failure in the arteries of the lower extremities. Also, normal lipid values have a beneficial effect on the body as a whole, allowing it to work clearly and harmoniously.