In the admission department, compliance with the sanitary-hygienic regime should exclude the introduction of infection into the hospital. After examining each incoming patient, the oilcloth on the couch must be wiped with a disinfectant solution, the patient is examined for pediculosis. In the admission ward of the admission department, patients (except those with medical contraindications) should undergo special sanitary treatment (shower, bath), after which the patient is given a set of clean underwear, pajamas, slippers. Personal clothes and shoes are stored in special containers (polyethylene bags, covers made of thick fabric) or transferred to relatives and friends of the patient. In some cases, patients are allowed to stay in the hospital in clean home clothes. Reception departments should have a stock of disinfection and disinsection equipment, as well as soap, personal washcloths, dishes for storing “clean” and used washcloths, tips for enemas.
The most important elements of the sanitary regime include those aimed at maintaining the cleanliness of the air in hospital rooms. Among them, air exchange and dust control are of prime importance. Each hospital should have a clearly established procedure for ventilating rooms and corridors during the cold and transitional seasons.
All hospital premises, equipment, medical and other equipment must be kept clean. Wet cleaning of rooms (mopping, wiping furniture, equipment, windows, doors) should be carried out at least twice a day using detergents (soap and soda solutions) and disinfectants. Window glasses should be wiped at least 1 time per month from the inside and as they become dirty, but at least 1 time per 3 months from the outside.
General cleaning (treatment of walls, floors, equipment, inventory, fixtures) of the wards and other functional rooms should be carried out according to the schedule at least 1 time per month. General cleaning (washing and disinfection) of the operating unit, dressing rooms, maternity rooms, treatment rooms, handling rooms, sterilization rooms is carried out once a week. Cleaning equipment (buckets, basins, rags, mops) should be clearly marked with the premises and type of cleaning work, used strictly for its intended purpose, processed and stored in a dedicated room.
In the wards, the bed, bedside table and stand for the bedpan are wiped with disinfectant solutions. Bedding after discharge of each patient should be processed in a disinfection chamber. Patients should take a hygienic bath once every 7-10 days with a change of bed linen, which is noted in the medical history. After changing the linen, the floor and objects in the room are wiped with disinfectant solutions.
In operating rooms, maternity units, other rooms with aseptic regimen, as well as in wards for newborns, sterile underwear should be used. The collection of dirty linen from patients in the departments should be carried out in a special tight container (oilcloth or plastic bags). Do not disassemble dirty laundry in compartments. Temporary storage of dirty laundry (no more than 12 hours) is allowed in rooms for dirty laundry in wards.
Of great importance when transferring infection from one patient to another is the hands of staff. Medical personnel should wash and disinfect their hands before examining each patient or performing procedures, as well as after performing “dirty” procedures (cleaning the premises, changing clothes for the sick, visiting the toilet). Hand washing and glove use are not mutually exclusive. The medical staff of the medical institution should be provided with sets of replaceable sanitary clothing: bathrobes, hats, and replaceable shoes. Storage of the daily shift of sanitary clothes is carried out in individual lockers. A set of sanitary clothing should be available for emergency replacement in case of contamination.
Students involved in obstetric wards, infectious diseases, phthisiatric, skin and venereologic departments and operating units should be provided with replaceable work clothes of the medical institution.
When collecting and disposing of hospital medical and household waste, the basic requirement must be observed – safe collection of infected waste in hermetically sealed containers or direct disinfection of waste at the place of its formation and quick removal from the ward and from the hospital.